SEMESTER SPRING 2012
Theories of Communication (MCM511)
Assignment N0. 02
Due Date: 12th June, 2012 Marks: 15
Assignment:
Hegemony is flexible, adoptive and a two way process of struggle that involves negotiations and
participation from both sides. It is not a one‐way top down imposed will. It is secured consensually
with the use of ideological status apparatuses like media, culture, education religion etc. Winning
hearts and minds of people by consensual means are more successful in the long run than coercion that
is the use of repressive state apparatuses like police, army, war or any other use of force etc.).
Hegemonic class will choose to use the force only when their fundamental structures are harshly
challenged.
Q. US hegemony is maintained through a combination of coercive and consensual means of control.
Identify with examples any three ways of control through which America is consensually securing its
hegemony over Pakistan. (5 marks each example)
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Theories of Communication
(MCM511)
Assignment 02 Marks 15
Hegemony is flexible, adoptive and a two way process of struggle that involves
negotiations and participation from both sides. It is not a one‐way top down imposed
will. It is secured consensually with the use of ideological status apparatuses like media,
culture, education religion etc. Winning hearts and minds of people by consensual means
are more successful in the long run than coercion that is the use of repressive state
apparatuses like police, army, war or any other use of force etc.). Hegemonic class will
choose to use the force only when their fundamental structures are harshly challenged.
Q. US hegemony is maintained through a combination of coercive and consensual means
of control. Identify with examples any three ways of control through which America is
consensually securing its hegemony over Pakistan. (5 marks each example)
Answer: Following are the consensual ways employed by US for securing and
maintaining its hegemony over Pakistan hegemony:
Based on the discussions with high state department officials, Fair (2008) in her
book entitled “The Madrassah Challenge: Militancy and Religious Education in
Pakistan” discloses that de-islamization and secularization of Pakistan’s
educational system is one of their prime objectives and a heavy amount has been
allocated for this purpose in the name of funding for educational reforms in
Pakistan.
USAID to support development in Pakistan with extensive programs in the
education, health care, economic growth, stabilization, and energy sectors is a
way to consensually maintaining hegemony. By making it dependent on AID
helps S to maintain its hegemony.
US administration has also been successful in using Pakistani leadership to launch
a massive military offensive against the extremist forces and the Taliban in
Northwest frontier regions. Muslim rulers are consensually in their own interests
are following the post 9/11 political agenda of United States and fulfilling their
political and economic interests.
US media, cultural and economic institutions and procedures complement
American dominance over the world. With the help of American-dominated
corporate media, Muslims are entrenched into an atmosphere that imposes
conceptual representations to distort the image of the Muslims. These false
realities and constructed worlds consequently submit them to the Western way of
living which includes Macdonaldization, Coca Cola and Nike culture that again
strengthen the US economic structures and maintains its dominance.
References:
Sikand, Y. The Madrassah Challenge - Militancy and Religious Education in Pakistan
Retrieved on 10 May, 2010 from:
http://www.twocircles.net/2009jul14/book_review_madrassah_challenge...
cy_and_religious_education_pakistan.html

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