Ayyan is teaching a topic on process synchronization. One of his students asks about some confusion over semaphores. You need to tell him what specific characteristics of semaphores could be useful in solving process synchronization problems also what operations can be performed on semaphores.


UNIX and Linux operating systems provide many tools for Inter-Process Communication (IPC). Write the name of at-least five commonly supported IPC tools for these two operating systems.


Process management is one of the key components of Operating system for managing computer resources. You are required to discuss the responsibilities of Operating system for process management.


Root directory is one of the most significant directories in Unix/Linux directory structure. You are required to enlist three unique characteristics of Root directory which are not associated with other directories in Unix/Linux environment.


There exists a scheduling algorithm which can be considered as a good scheduling algorithm with reference to CPU utilization. You need to identify the algorithm which also has other characteristics as given below:

  1. used for time sharing algorithm
  2. multiple processes can run at the same time
  3. greater context switching
  4. Increase average waiting time

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